Angry at the Japanese atrocities in Nanjing during WWII,
German diplomat Georg Rosen sent Magee's film to Nazi government and requested film be shown to Hitler to prove that Japanese army was a "Violent Killing Machine".
The real Root Cause of Japan's remorselessness is the Cover-up of State-Terrorism by U.S. against Humanity. Without the Cover-up, Japan will have to naturally and willingly follow the great example set by the courageous Germany.
For most Japanese, the courageous question is still haunting : What did you do in the War, Daddy ?
|Japanese way of Apology|
Aug. 15, 2006
|Japan with a history of aggression, crimes against Humanity, with
NO signs of remorse
is untrustworthy to be a permanent member on the UN Security Council.
Letter to U.N. Secretary General
Millions already joined to reject Japan
|German way of Apology
Dec. 7, 1970
This WMD Drug Warfare is definitely the worst and only known war crime case of systematic massive drug doping of civilian against Humanity committed by a country in our Human History. Japan was one of the Axis of Evil of the International Drug Holocaust which had lasted 150 years and at least 100 Million Chinese were chronically massacred by Britain, U.S., Japan etc. directly and indirectly.
The Japanese opium trade first came to light in the mid-1980s, when historians uncovered several secret Japan government documents. The documents show the Tokyo government was deeply engaged in the drug trade to make money off Chinese addicts.
But Japan was just a latecomer in drug-trafficking.
The colonial governments of Britain , Portugal , Holland , and France had all heavily depended on opium-related revenues from areas of Asia under their control in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
In 2007, a newly discovered Japanese document, titled "Outline of Hung Chi Shan Tang" shows Hung Chi Shan Tang sold 6 million "liang," or 222 tons, of opium in 1941. Japan's opium trade in China was considered an essential financial resource for the Imperial Japanese Army and Japan's puppet governments. "to put the opium business under Japan's wartime control," Hajime Satomi, the Japan's wartime "Opium King" wrote in the document, whose first page is stamped "secret".
The postwar International Military Tribunal for the Far East judged that Japan violated the 3 antiopium treaties by promoting the drug in China to increase revenues for its military and puppet governments. "In all areas occupied by the Japanese, the use of opium and narcotics increased steadily from the time of such occupation until surrender," the judgment read.
Major Gen. Ryukichi Tanaka, at the postwar Tokyo war crime tribunal claimed Tojo scooped "great sums of money" from Satomi's secret opium funds. Lt. Gen. Kiyonobu Shiozawa, Tojo's most-favored protege, went from Beijing to Tokyo about every 2 months and "brought back great sums of money for Tojo" each time, Tanaka testified. Shiozawa headed the Beijing office of the China Affairs Board (Ko-a-in), a Japanese wartime government body. In the Tokyo tribunal, Satomi also testified as a witness that he handed over all the profits of his opium business to the China Affairs Board and Imperial army as well. Many to this day suspect Kishi was directly involved in the opium dealings. One thing is clear: Many of Kishi's close aides were considered key figures in Japan's opium operations in China, e.g. Tadayuki Furumi, Hideoto Mori. The inscription on the tombstone of Hajime Satomi was written by the late Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi, grandfather of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.
Before the WWII, Japan was quite aware of the social destruction that drugs could cause, as well as the devastating role that British Opium had brought onto China. Therefore, following British Opium footsteps, the Japanese distributed Opium , Heroin and Morphia along the Chinese coast.
After colonizing Korea, during its 36 years of brutal colonial governance of Korea, the Japanese forced Korean farmers to grow opium for Japan's opium operations .
In 1918, the Japanese opium profit in Taiwan alone had reached more than 8 Million yen.
On 1931 Sept 18, when China was still engaging in its Chinese Civil War, Japan seized the opportunity and engineered a railway sabotage known as the "Mukden Incident" or "918 Invasion" or "Manchurian Incident" as the pretext to resume its invasion. Following the explosion of the local railway line, the Japanese army blamed Chinese soldiers for sabotaging its supply lines. Within months, Japan occupied much of the Northeastern part - Manchuria of China and later declared Manchuria was to be independent from China as the "Manchukuo" puppet state, violating both the Kellogg-Briand Pact which obligated it to refrain from using force against other states, and the Nine-Power Treaty which stipulated respect for China's sovereignty and territorial integrity, while the League of Nations stood idly by.
Japan even had a top-secret "Fugu Plan" to create an "Israel in Asia" in Manchuria by offering European Jews a safe haven in return for their financial and technical skills to help colonizing Manchuria.
League of Nations was born after WWI. Japan was a permanent member of the Council which controlled the world body. China had only become a non-permanent member for 4 days before 918 Manchurian Invasion. Interestingly, today the positions of Japan and China in the current U.N. Security Council, are exactly in reverse of what they were before WWII.
Japan immediately transformed Manchuria into a vast poppy field. Mitsui then processed Manchurian Opium into Heroin.
Japan became the largest Opium producer throughout the first half of the 20th century, initially in Korea, and then in Manchuria.
According to "A Fair Chance for Asia" by Putnam Weale, even as early as 1919, Japan already distributed 20 tons of morphia to China annually - sufficient to poison a whole nation.
By 1937, Japan and its gangster operated world's largest drug trafficking system and were responsible for 90 % of the world's illicit narcotics.
In 1937, in a League of Nations Opium Advisory Committee meeting, Russell Pasha declared Japan was responsible for virtually ALL of the world's illicit narcotics.
For details, refer to book Opium Empire: Japanese Imperialism and Drug Trafficking in Asia, 1895-1945.
During the war, Japan made arrangement between the Yakuza (Japanese organized criminal organization), industrialists (including household names such as Mitsui and Suzuki) and the military produced the profitable Opium Monopoly Bureau, a legalized dope peddling business between the military government and the hoods. Japan used opiates to weaken Chinese resistance, and deliberately fostered drug addiction in the occupied areas of China.
The WMD Drug Warefare earned Japan $300 million (equivalent of $3.5 billion in 2001) per year from the bankrupt China with its drug strategy of nation against nation.
To encourage addiction and further enslave the Chinese people in the occupied area, Japanese wartime occupation authorities distributed as much Opium , Heroin, and Morphia as possible. Japanese routinely used narcotics as payment for the labor. Heroin cigarettes were offered to children as young as ten.
Japan reinstated poppy farms. Koreans were put in charge of the illegal drug operations to ensure that no Japanese agents risked addiction.
Since 1773, British Opium had brought onto China more than a century of devastating social destruction and economic disasters, contributed to the ruin of a once-great and probably the wealthiest nation of Earth -- China.
In the early 18th century, Britain, Spain, Dutch were pushing Opium into China at an ever-increasing rate. Trade in opium was illegal in China, but British and other countries' merchants unloaded their cargo offshore, selling it to Chinese smugglers. By the early 19th century, China was completely corrupted and weakened by the British Opium.
As a result, both the Chinese central and local government officials were completely corrupted by this addictive drug. Opium infected China so badly that addicts were even found in the military. From the Imperial Palace including the last Chinese Empress, to lowly labourers. Tens of millions families broken. The whole nation was on the verge of collapse.
The number kept growing and grew exponentially. By 1820, just one city Soochow alone had already 100,000 addicts.
The drug traffic caused a disastrous outflow of China's wealth. In 1793, China's silver reserve was estimated at 70 million taels (approx. 2.6 million kg ) of silver. By 1820, it had been reduced to only about 10 million taels . . However, even in 1820, China was still generating 1/3 of the world's gross domestic product. By 1950, that share had fallen to only 5%.
Alarmed, Emperor of China declares war on Drugs. Emperor appointed Lin Tse-Hsu to suppress the Opium traffic. Twice Lin wrote Letter to Queen Victoria to seek her intercession, but to no avail. Finally resulted in 2 Opium Wars with Britain.
It was the First 2 real Wars on drugs in our Human History.
Completely weakened and corrupted by the British Opium, with an impotent, naive and conservative minor ethnic Manchurian Qing government, China was no match against Western technologies. Defeated, China was forced to legalize the importation and sale of Opium by Britain.
For details, refer to History of the Opium Trade in China
Immediately, other Western Christian countries, e.g. U.S. and French traders followed to grab their share of fortune. American traders followed not far behind, not because of their higher moral standards, but because U.S. had a less dependable source of opium supply. The Americans had to make do at first with the drug produced in Turkey.
In 1816, John Jacob Astor became the first American shipping opium to China, who later became America's first multimillionaire.
By 1839, nearly ALL U.S. companies followed to Opium-trafficking into China, with the lonely exception of D.W.C. Olyphant & Company ridiculed as the "Zion's Comer". Of all the U.S. Opium companies, Russell & Company, was the biggest, and the 3rd largest firm in the Indian opium trade, British or American.
Writing home, an American named Warren Delano of Russell & Company, said "I do not pretend to justify the prosecution of the opium trade in a moral and philanthropic point of view, but as a merchant I insist that it has been a fair, honorable and legitimate".
Robert Bennet Forbes, Warren's friend and predecessor as head of the firm agreed. "indeed, it has been asserted with truth that the 20 or 30 thousand chests, say 12 to 15 Million pounds of Opium, distributed among 350 Millions of people, had a much less deleterious effect on the whole country than the vile liquor made of rice, called 'samshue'." "I considered it right to follow the example of England, the East India Company…and the merchants to whom I had always been accustomed to look up as exponents of all that was honorable in trade --— the Perkins's, the Peabodys, the Russells, and the Lows".
Robert Bennet Forbes boasted that he made the very substantial sum of 30 thousand dollars for himself this way in one year. Warren was always more circumspect about his earnings, but the firm's opium profits soared while he was in charge, and his own commissions may have too.
In 1857, Warren was broke due to the Panic of 1857. So he just went back to China, Hong Kong, and soon became rich again with tea and the Opium.
Warren Delano returned to America rich. He gave his daughter Sara in marriage to a wellborn neighbor, James Roosevelt, the father of Franklin Roosevelt.
When the columnist Westbrook Regler accused the U.S. President Roosevelt of living off the fortune left by "an old buccaneer" who had wrested it from "a slave traffic as horrible and degrading as prostitution", the U.S. White House maintained a discreet silence.
To preserve the Truth of History, the U.S. President's biographer Geoffrey C. Ward rejects efforts of the Delano family to minimize Warren's Opium dark secret. His book is Before the trumpet: young Franklin Roosevelt.
On April 26, 1853, The Times ran the following Editorial condemning Opium trade and Western Christian countries:
"China lost all control over the importation into her borders of the poison she so much abhorred. The opium traffic... has been increasing .... and is fast spreading into the interior. 60,000 chests are annually imported ...... England, it is true, receives an immense sum into her Treasury ......"
"The effects upon the progress of Christianity are most deleterious. The Christian may well blush at the rebuke of the ruined Pagan ....... "
According to Gabriel G. Nahas "The Decline of Drugged Nations" By 1900, China had 90 Million addicts caused by British, U.S., Japanese Opium, Heroin and Morphia.
With Opium, the huge trade deficit with China was thus easily solved by the West. To the West, opium was much more effective than various government subsidies. List of names of great American and European fortunes built on the "China"(opium) trade . The Opium Hall of Fame.
"Drug trades destabilized existing societies not merely because they destroyed individual human beings , but also , and perhaps more importantly , because they have the power to undercut the existing political economy of any state ........ The accumulations of wealth created by a succession of historic drug trades have been among the primary foundations of global capitalism and the modern nation-state itself."
"Indeed, it may be argued that The entire rise of the West , from 1500 to 1900 , depended on a series of drug trades."
For details, refer to book Opium, Empire and the global political Economy.
150 years continuous flow of immense amount of the Opium money from China had significantly financed the Criminal Enrichment foundation of today's prosperity of ALL Western colonial countries including Japan ( i.e. G8 - Canada + Austria) and significantly funded the Industrial Revolution Science and Technology, and the Great Depression in the West.
In the opposite, China, probably the richest country on Earth had soon become the poorest country on Earth, and become known as the "Sick Man of the East".
17 Millions Chinese addicts died directly as a result of British, U.S., Japanese Opium, Heroin and Morphia.
The above figure was estimated in 1900s, but China was NOT freed from the addictive drugs until 1945. Also, the later Heroin and Morphia invented by the West, are far more addictive and deadlier than the Opium. Therefore, the Actual number of addicts and death should be doubled, i.e. 200 millions Chinese drug addicts at peak time and 30 millions Chinese drug death directly caused by 150 years of British, U.S., Japanese Opium, Heroin and Morphia operations. It equals to the number of Black Death of plague in the entire Europe. Opium was also called "heitu" by the Chinese, i.e. "Black Dirt" for the tarry substance placed in long bamboo smoking pipes, but it was a modern plague of Black Death forced upon by the Axis of Evil of Colonial Terrorism.
Ironically, the Morphine was called "Jesus Opium" because of its introduction by Western Missionaries as a cure for opium addiction.
The estimated number of 200 Million drug addicts is only the number of addicts at the peak time. If all the number of drug addicts put together over the 150 years, then the number should again be conservatively doubled, i.e. the Total number of drug addicts over 150 years could be shocking 400 Millions Chinese addicts.
If the In-Direct Death Toll of the numerous who died prematurely caused by Western destructive drugs, such as the drug related devastating social destruction, extreme poverty, economic disasters, crimes, hunger, sickness etc., is to be included, then the conservative Total Death Toll caused by the Western destructive drugs, directly and in-directly, could be at least 100 Millions Chinese death over the course of 150 miserable years.
It was an unimaginable great scale of "Chronic Massacre Without Bloodshed". It is definitely the most horrific colonial crime in our human History. It was a "Drug Holocaust" committed by Britain, U.S., Japan etc. It was an "International Drug Holocaust" that lasted 150 years - by the Axis of Evil of Colonial Terrorism.
150-years means at least 7 generations, i.e. your great-grandparents , grandparents , parents , yourself , brothers and sisters , sons and daughters , grandsons and grandaughters , great-grandsons and great-grandaughters , all could be drug addicts and killed.
The science has long been clear that smoking causes cancer, but new research shows that children could inherit genetic damage from a father who smokes. "Here we are looking at male germline mutations, which are mutations in the DNA of sperm. If inherited, these mutations persist as irreversible changes in the genetic composition of off-spring." said Carole Yauk, scientist in the Mutagenesis Section of Health Canada’s Environmental and Occupational Toxicology Division. "We have known that mothers who smoke can harm their fetuses, and here we show evidence that fathers can potentially damage offspring long before they may even meet their future mate." 7 generations of drug addict should be much deadlier.
The 150 years of WMD drug destruction had an extremely profound impact on all Chinese, socially, culturally, physically, psychologically and genetically to this day.
The whole China became a lawless society, flooded with drugs, corruption, gangster, gambling, prostitution, unemployment, crimes, poverty and sickness. Not only both the central and local government, even the militaries were totally corrupted and weakened. Socially, millions and millions Chinese families were destroyed. Thousands-years-old social values, educations, cultural ethics, virtues and morality were totally destroyed by Western addictive drugs. Mentally, the Chinese were no longer as proud and self-confident as used to be of the Middle Kingdom. Most became humiliated, intimidated, fearful and hateful towards the foreigners who deservedly earned their nickname as the "Foreign Devils". This period of History has been termed as a "Whole Century of Humiliation" by the Chinese.
The impact of the transformation from a once-great and probably the richest country on Earth to the poorest country on Earth by the opium, heroin, morphia and humiliation has an extremely profound and long lasting effect on China in every imaginable aspect to this day. Both the pride and humilation have evloved into the roots of Chinese Nationalism or Chinese Cyber-Patriotism or Nationalism based on Humiliation. In order to prevent the once-great China from further breaking apart influenced by the foreign powers, the Chinese government inevitable employs many ruling policies that are not up to the Western standards, e.g. XiZang (Tibet Autonomous Region), XinJiang (XinJiang Autonomous Region).
For details, refer to Dalai Lama & Free Tibet : U.S. CIA, Nazi SS, Slavery, Serfdom, Genocide in Tibet, Cultural Genocide, Vegetarian, Nobel Peace Prize.
On July 1, 1997 the very first day of the returning of British colony - Hong Kong to its motherland China since 1842, a Chinese poet wrote in his poem: "The Opium War has truly ended today !". After Hong Kong was returned to China in 1997, the Portugal also returned Macao, another neighboring colony, to China on Dec. 20, 1999.
H. Wells Williams concluded in his "Middle Kingdom" - "Great Britain, the first Christian power, really waged this war against the pagan monarch who had only endeavored to put down a vice harmful to his people. The war was looked upon in this light by the Chinese; it will always be so looked upon by the candid historian, and known as the Opium War."
According to the book "Trade Politics and Christianity in Africa and the East" by A. J. Macdonald, in one Chinese city Newchang alone, 2,000 morphia addicts died in the winter of 1914-15. Morphia carries off its victims far more rapidly than Opium.
The morphia was manufactured by Britain and U.S.. Shipped to Japan, then distributed to China by Japan.
In 1906, with the creation of largest drug case in Human History with Almost 50 % of the China's population were Opium addicts, British finally realized that their More than a century India-China Opium Traffic is morally indefensible and proposed to control it. The Chinese unhesitatingly accepted. "It is hereby commanded," the emperial edict ran, "that within a period of ten years the evils arising from foreign and native opium be equally and completely eradicated."
In 1909, an International Conference was convened in Shanghai. All the major countries were invited. 13 states agreed to control the traffic in opium and its derivatives, particularly morphine. In 1911, they met again at the Hague. In 1920, the League of Nations had been established. In 1931, at the Geneva Convention, the Opium Advisory Committee also tried to regulate all production of dangerous drugs.
However, gradually it became clear, it was the Great Depression that had drastically reduced opium demand; and pushed down the price; and many governments were restricting the production of narcotics mainly in the hope of keeping the drug prices from falling further. When the drug traffic began to recover, the Convention was of little help in controlling it due to the huge profit from the illegal drugs.
Opium, Heroin, Morphia of illegal trade by the Britain, U.S., Japan and other Western Christian countries, became one of the world's most valuable commodity at the expense of China, ironically NONE of them would allow the opium to be sold in their own countries.
During the 19th century, the U.S. missionary told the Chinese people that whoever does not believe in Christianity will be doomed to hell. At the same time, the British and U.S. Christian businessman kept drugging China with huge sales of opium and succeeded in creating a truly doomed Pagan "hell".
The eminent Harvard historian J.K Fairbank described it as "The most long continued and systematic International Crime of modern times" - 150 years of "International Crime" against China , by the Axis of Evil of Colonial Terrorism.
With Mussolini leaving the League, Hitler ignoring it, the Japanese defied it by occupying northern China in 1931 and later declared Manchuria was to be independent from China as the "Manchukuo" puppet state in 1932, then set up its Manchukuo Opium Monopoly only to follow the British Opium pattern.
Although Japan is a signatory to the agreement which forbids the import into China of morphia or of any appliances used in its manufacture or application. Since Morphia no longer can be purchased in Europe, the seat of industry has been transferred to Japan, and morphia is now manufactured by the Japanese themselves. Literally, tens of millions of yen are transferred annually from China to Japan for the payment of Japanese morphia.
Through Dairen, morphia circulates throughout Manchuria and the province adjoining; through Tsingtao, morphia is distributed over Shantung province, Anhui, and Kiangsu, while from Taiwan morphia is carried with opium and other contraband by motor-driven fishing boats to some point on the mainland China, from which it is distributed throughout the province of Fukien and the north of Kuangtung. Everywhere it is sold by Japanese under the extra-territorial protection."
For details, refer to Japan's Opium Monopoly - Japan as an Opium, Heroin, Morphia Drug Distributor in China.
In 1935, Peter Fleming visited Manchukuo for the Times to determine the question, "Is the monopoly a crusade or a racket ?". On the evidence, he decided, it was clearly a racket. In Japan's "Manchukuo" puppet state , Japanese open the "Opium Dens" or "Opium Divans" to all, even teenagers; consumption was increasing; and the monopoly was already making huge profits as the Japanese authorities cynically acknowledged, by imprinting a flowering poppy on their Manchukuo coins.
In 1944, Violet Sweet Haven, a journalist working in Asia, described in her book "Gentlemen of Japan : A Study in Rapist Diplomacy" : "The Harbin and Dairen narcotics factories were financed by the Mitsui and Suzuki banking houses ..... Japanese military found that the opium-smoking Chinese troops were the first to surrender and that the dope addicts of Mukden were the least troublesome of the civilian population ..... ordered factories opened in Harbin and Dairen to convert raw opium into heroin and morphine ..... A new kind of cigarette, which peddlers sold for less than the cheapest Chinese smoke or gave away free ..... The cigarettes were no bargain, for they were filled with heroin, and addiction to drugs swept through these areas ....."
"Opium was too dirty and it has been kept secret until now" said Hideo Kobayashi, a professor at Waseda University in Tokyo. The latest finding in the document on the Japanese-run opium firm Hung Chi Shan Tang, now kept in the National Diet Library, reveals Japan used opium to gain economic hegemony over China's yuan-based legal tender in the 1940s, using it to bolster the Military Yen "gunpyo" scrip. Japan issued Military Yen "gunpyo" to procure materials in China, using the scrip to subvert China's legal tender. He said Tokyo was engaged directly in the currency operation involving opium. The document shows the amount of opium exchanged for gunpyo was valued at "nearly Yen 100 Million" in 1942. "This is a tremendous amount. Opium would make a perfect weapon (against legal tender) because its sales were huge," Kobayashi said.
The WMD Drug Warfare was conducted with full approval from Tokyo as a state policy, under the directives of an official Japanese umbrella organization, the China Affairs Board, run by Prince Konoye.
Japan, not only was one of the Axis of Evil of the International Drug Holocaust , but also continued the Chronic Drug Massacre during Asian Holocaust to gain huge profit from the addictive WMD Drug Warfare to finance its war machine with the creation of tens of millions of Chinese drug addicts.
This WMD Biological Warfare is definitely the worst crime case of systematic biological massacre against Humanity committed by a country in our Human History. After 60 years, antibodies of bubonic plague still exist in rats, dogs, cats and other animals. Outbreak still haunts the Chinese cities to this day.
"The fellow knew that it was over for him, and so he didn't struggle." recalled the old former medical assistant of a Japanese Army unit in China in World War II, "But when I picked up the scalpel that's when he began screaming. I cut him open from the chest to the stomach, and he screamed terribly, and his face was all twisted in agony. He made this unimaginable sound, he was screaming so horribly. But then finally he stopped." The former medical assistant who insisted on anonymity, explained the reason for the vivisection. The Chinese prisoner had been deliberately infected with the plague as part of a research project.
Imperial Japan's biological killing fields are a lost chapter of history that the full horror of which is only recently been exposed and understood in all its enormity.
Japan set up Headquarters of Unit 731 in Ping Fan near Harbin and Unit 100 in ChangChun, and Mukden, now called SunYang, in China to develop plague bombs for use in WWII. The base was disguised as Epidemic Prevention and Water Supply Unit. The complex in Ping Fan was completed in 1939, contained more than 150 buildings, including 2 secret prisons and 3 crematoria, and was the largest WMD Biological Weapon research center in the world.
After infecting him, the researchers decided to cut him open alive, tear him apart, organ by organ, to see what the disease does to a man's inside. Often no anesthetic was used, he said, out of concern that it might have an effect on the results.
From July 1993 to Dec. 1994, the "Unit 731 Exhibition" toured Japan and presented at 61 locations over the course of one and half year. It had sent shockwaves throughout Japan. Hal Gold had collected many testimonies in his book "Unit 731: Testimony; Japan's Wartime Human Experimentation and the Post-War Cover-up". One of the testimonies was provided by an aged former Japanese doctor Kurumizawa Masakuni :
The Chinese woman victim had regained her consciousness while being vivisected alive.
" She opened her eyes. "
" And then ? "
" She hollered. "
" What did she say ? "
Kurumizawa could not answer, then began weeping feebly and murmured,
" I don't want to think about it again. "
The interviewee apologized, waited a few seconds, and tried again for an answer.
He gave it through sobs.
" She said, "It's all right to kill me, but please spare my child's life."
Japanese Dr. Kanisawa testified in NBC Dateline "Factory of Death: Unit 731" on Aug. 15, 1995, the live un-anesthetized dissection was a routine common practice in all units.
"The 1st time, I was very hesitant to do what I was told to do.
The 2nd time, you get used to it.
The 3rd time, you more or less volunteered."
Yoshio Shinozuka, former member of Unit 731 came to Harbin in 1939 and were given various orders, said "The one I can remember clearly even now was 'Don't look, don't listen, and most importantly of all, don't tell anyone what happens here".
"The first time, my legs were shaking so badly I could hardly stand up". He knew the person on the operating table, " At the vivisection, I could not meet his eyes because of the hate he had in his glare at me."
"We called the victims 'logs," he said, "We didn't want to think of them as people. We didn't want to admit that we were taking lives. So we convinced ourselves that what we were doing was like cutting down a tree. When you see someone in that state, you just can't move. Your mind goes blank. The fear is overwhelming." said Yoshio.
The research program was one of the great secrets of Japan during and after World War II : a vast project to develop weapons of WMD Biological Warfare including following deadly diseases :
|Bubonic Plague||Anthrax (including inhalation,
skin and gastrointestinal types)
|Paratyphoid A and B||Tularemia|
|Cholera||Epidemic Hemorrhagic Fever|
|Infectious Jaundice||Undulant Fever|
|Epidemic Cerebrospinal Meningitis||Tick Encephalitis|
|Plant diseases for crop destruction||Dozen other pathogens|
Unit 731 & Unit 100 were comprised of over 3,000 researchers and technicians. It was a gigantic research center focused on WMD Biological Weapons - the world's most technically advanced at the time, used human as the guinea pigs, known as marutas (logs). The Japanese told the locals that the facilities were lumber mills.
The Ping Fan facility alone could monthly "manufacture as much as 300 kg of plague bacteria... 500-600 kg of anthrax germs, 800-900 kg typhoid, paratyphoid, or dysentery germs, or as much as 1000 kg of cholera germs." If several different diseases were manufactured simultaneously, then the total production of pathogens could be many times higher.
A former member of Unit 731 testified that "to eliminate any chance of leaking out the secret of construction of the 'Square Buildings' by the laborers, they are all sent to special prison and used as the first batch of test objects."
More than 10,000 Chinese, Korean and Russian PoWs were slaughtered in these biological experiments.
Only 277 of the victims that were killed by Unit 731 have been identified, mostly through records of the Japanese transportation units that delivered them to Ping Fan. Their names are engraved today in a memorial in the Ping Fan museum.
The vivisection was routinely used for practicing various kinds of surgery says Dr. Ken Yuasa, a former Japanese doctor working in China during the War. First an appendectomy, then an amputation of an arm and finally a tracheotomy. When they finished practicing, they killed the victim with an injection. "I was evil. I was a devil," Dr. Ken Yuasa says sadly. "We all were." Morimura Seiichi describes in explicit details of vivisection in his book "The Devouring Monster".
Medical researchers also locked up diseased prisoners with healthy ones, to see how readily various diseases would spread.
To determine how much pressure the body can withstand, some were put inside a pressure chamber would suffer terrible agony before their eyes pop out from their sockets and blood forced out through their skin.
Marutas were denied food or water to determine the maximum length of survival, or mummified alive in total dehydration experiments. "what happened when a human being did not have water for a week. He would go insane. With water but without food, a person could last 50 to 60 days." said Toshimo Mizobuchi, a former Unit 731 instructor. Some were put into hot water and gradually increase the temperature to study degree of burns and the relationship between temperature and survival.
To determine the treatment of frostbite, prisoners were taken outside in freezing weather and left with exposed arms, periodically drenched with water until frozen solid. The arm was later amputated, the doctors would repeat the process on the victim's upper arm to the shoulder. After both arms were gone, the doctors moved on to the legs until only a head and torso remained. The victim was then used for plague and pathogens experiments.
Victims were burned with flamethrowers, blown up with shrapnel, bombarded with lethal doses of X-ray, spun to death in centriguges, injected with animal blood, air bubbles, exposure to syphilis, surgical removal of stomachs with the esophagus then attached to the intestines, amputation of arms and reattachment on the opposite side, gassed to death in chambers .......
The doctors experimented on children and babies, even three-day-old baby measuring the temperature with a needle stuck inside the infant's middle finger to keep it straight to prevent the baby's hand clenching into a fist.
Victims were often taken to a proving ground called Anda, where they were tied to stakes and bombarded with test weapons to see how effective the new technologies were. Planes sprayed the zone with a plague culture or dropped bombs with plague-infected fleas to see how many people would die.
White-coated Japanese medics claiming to be from a government epidemic-prevention unit would arrive saying that they were there to implement hygiene measures or to administer vaccinations. After they left, the villages would become sick.
The Japanese army regularly conducted "Field Tests". Planes dropped plague-infected fleas over Ningbo in eastern China and over Changde in north-central China.
Japanese troops dropped cholera and typhoid cultures in water reservoirs, wells and ponds.
Cottony material and feathers coated with anthrax bacteria were used to spread the disease in an airborne manner, as such fibers had been found to be effective in keeping the bacteria alive long enough to reach the intended human victims.
Witnesses recall watching Japanese airplanes dropping a mixture of wheat, millet, soy beans, rice, cotton fibers, paper and fabric cuttings, aerial spraying pathogens over the cities . They all had been coated with the biological organism or with fleas and brought the germs to people.
Japanese distributed infected food, cakes, drink, clothes and children's candies to the locals.
The same mass infections were being repeated all over China, except in Tibet, Qinghai and Xinjiang.
"Glanders was a disease first found in horses, and it could attack human beings," said Furmanski. Human beings' legs are most affected by the disease. "Only one out of 20 people with the disease could survive.
Medical records showed that glanders had virtually been wiped out in 1906, but new cases suddently broke out in the 1940s during WWII in China."
U.S. doctor Michael Franzblau, professor of dermatology at the University of California, after visiting surviving victims in east China's Zhejiang Province, has confirmed that Japan used glanders bacterium to kill innocent Chinese civilians. Since 1996, Franzblau had put forward bills in 11 consecutive years to the World Medical Association demanding the Japan Medical Association admit Japan used biological weapons. However, the delegates of the American Medical Association (AMA), Europe and Japan ganged up and defeated his resolution from 1996 through 2003 for a total 11 times at the World Medical Association. By 2004, WMA even went so far to change its by-laws so individual members are forbidden to introduce such resolution.
Just few months after the Pearl Harbor on Apr 18, 1942, U.S. shocked Japan with its daring Tokyo Raid or the Doolittle Raid. Led by Jimmy Doolittle, 16 B-25 bombers broke through Japanese defenses and dropped bombs in Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka-Kobe, and Nagoya. It was a one-way mission. The planes continued west to the airfield at Chuchow, China. Short of the fuel, most of planes crashed or were ditched over China. Local Chinese hid U.S. survivors and escorted them to safety.
The dramatic Tokyo Raid stunned Japan with the -- True meaning of War.
Enraged Japanese army launched Operation Sei-Go to secure airfields and punish Chinese villager for helping US airmen. In retaliation, the Japanese launched a scorched earth campaign and used WMD Biological Weapons on a large scale.
Japanese planes had more than 600 air raids on towns and villages of East China. Japanese burnt to the ground those villages through which the airmen had passed.
"They killed my 3 sons," related one aged Chinese man. "They killed my wife. They drowned my grandchildren in the well."
Catching a villager who had sheltered an American pilot, Japanese soldiers wrapped him in a kerosene-soaked blanket, then forced his wife to set it afire.
The captured air raiders who were downed in Japan were beheaded in the palace square in front of Emperor Hirohito.
It was estimated about 250,000 Chinese civilians were murdered in the revenge.
Japanese showered 7 WMD Biological pathogens on Zhejiang province to retaliate the Doolittle Tokyo Raid.
Even today, one hard-hit village in Zhejiang still bears the nickname "Rotten-Leg Village" because so many older residents are scarred by glanders from the 1942 attacks. Their flesh are still rotten and have not been healed since they were attacked - they have been suffering for more than 60 years now.
"64 Years of Torture" - stories of WMD Biological Warfare victims in Zhejiang. The Forgotten Victims of Biological Warfare and the Shocking Pictures by the The Sunshine Project.
Sheldon H. Harris, a historian at California State University and author of the book, "Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932-45 and the American Cover-up" stressed that "My calculation, which is very conservative, and based on incomplete sources as the major archives are still closed, is that 10,000 to 12,000 human beings were exterminated in lab experiments".
Outside the 731 prisons, the "Field Tests" were carried out all over China except in Tibet, Qinghai and Xinjiang.
Scholars believe that the toll from Japanese-seeded cholera epidemics in the southern province of Yunnan alone may reach the staggering figure of 200,000 killed in May 1942.
"In that family, 3 generations were wiped out: great-grandmother, grandmother, grandson, the pregnant daughter-in-law and her baby – 5 people died," said Zhang WenZeng whose father was one of the victims. By the time he died, there were no adults left to carry the coffin. "I was just 14 years old, and all I could do was cry. Those who died, died very terrible deaths. You could hear them screaming loudly. They suffered terrible cramps and diarrhoea".
3 months later, another 200,000 die in Shandong province as a result of Unit 731's germ warfare.
In the Zhejiang province city of Quzhou alone, over 50,000 perished from bubonic plague and cholera .....
As the war was ending, Japanese purposely released all the plague-infected animals. The Northeastern China immediately became a disastrous area and caused outbreaks of plague that killed at least another 30,000 people from 1946 - 1948.
It is also called by some as the Asian Auschwitz of Unit 731.
In 1987, based on first-hand reports of the atrocities, filmmaker T.F. Mou (sometimes referred to as T.F. Mous) is probably best known as the director of the Man Behind the Sun (or Black Sun 731). He followed up later with another travelogue of Japanese war atrocities: Black Sun: The Nanking Massacre.
"There could be over 700,000 or even 1,000,000" lives lost to Japan's biowarfare program" said Daniel Barenblatt, author of new book A Plague Upon Humanity: The Secret Genocide of Axis Japan's Germ Warfare Operation.
Japanese General Dr. Ishii Shiro was much worse than Dr. Josef Mengele - the Nazi SS "Angel of Death". Japanese biological massacre committed were far worse than the Nazi's, and lasted much longer.
Japanese military scientists killed 12 times the number of civilians as did by the Nazi.
Nazi doctors were held accountable for their crimes in the famous 1947 "Nuremberg Doctors Trials", but there were NO comparable "Japanese Doctors Trial".
The research was kept secret after the war in part because the U.S. granted immunity from war crimes prosecution to the Japanese doctors in exchange for their data and helped covering up the human experiment - An act utterly ignored justice and against Humanity by U.S. This was equivalent to barter Auschwitz doctor Josef Mengele's freedom and cover-up in return for the results of his horrific human experiments.
On May 6 1947, in a radio message to Washington, MacArthur urged the combined US military and State Department group which supervised occupation policy in Japan to give "In Writing" immunity to Ishii and all others involved in the Japanese Germ Warfare and Human experiments.
On Dec 27 1949, MacArthur's Headquarters announced to the world "that the Japanese had done some experimentation with animals, but that there was no evidence they ever had used human beings."
Ken Yuasa, a frail 70-year-old physician in Tokyo, recalls joining other doctors to watch as a prisoner was shot in the stomach, to give Japanese surgeons practice at extracting bullets. While the victim was still alive, the doctors also practiced amputations. "It wasn't just my experience," Dr. Ken Yuasa says. "It was done everywhere."
Kyushu University was medical site where U.S. PoWs were incontrovertibly used in dissections. Dr. Toshio Tono recalled U.S. PoW Teddy Ponczka was given intravenous injections of sea water to determine if sea water could be used as a substitute for sterile saline solution. Dr. Toshio Tono held the bottle of sea water. He says Ponczka bled to death not as described by the U.S. military record.
Then it was the turns of other U.S. PoWs. The Japanese wanted to learn whether a patient could survive the partial loss of his liver. They wanted to learn if epilepsy could be controlled by removing part of the brain. According to U.S. military records, physicians also operated on the prisoners' stomachs and necks. All 8 U.S. PoWs died in various gruesome experiments.
Word of the experiments on the U.S. PoWs eventually leaked out. 30 people were brought to trial by an Allied war crimes tribunal in Yokohama in 1948. Charges included vivisection, wrongful removal of body parts and cannibalism - based on reports that the experimenters had eaten the livers of the Americans.
However, in June 1950 the attitude of U.S. government began to change because of the start of the Korean War. Japan was an enemy-turned-ally. In 1950, MacArthur reduced most of the sentences. By 1958, all were free. None of the death sentences was carried out.
NGO The Sunshine Project has discovered that even today US is still actively developing Biological and Chemical Weapon. On 24 Sept. 2002 Sunshine Project provided evidence for US Military Secret Chemical Weapons Program violating international law.
U.S. itself in 1943 also set up a major Biological Warfare program with 3,500 people at Camp Detrick, now Fort Detrick, in Frederic, MD. Instead of putting the ringleaders on trial, U.S. gave them stipends to gain some advantages in the WMD Biological Weapon.
On Aug. 13, 1985, British Independent Televison broadcast a documentary "Unit 731 - Did the Emperor Know ? ". It was producted by Peter Williams and David Wallace after years research, hinted broadly that Emperor Hirohito was aware of the human experiments. There was also an interview with retired Lt. Col. Murray Sanders, the first US investigator into Unit 731. Sanders claimed that Gen. Douglas MacArthur authorized him to make a deal with the Japanese if they cooperated with US Biological Warfare scientists.
The producers even sent a copy of the documentary film to the Japanese officials in London.
Murray Sanders was also interviewed by NBC Dateline "Factory of Death: Unit 731" on Aug. 15, 1995 said "It was a mistake for the criminal Japanese to have been pardoned."
William and Wallace also published the book " Unit 731: The Japanese Army's Secret of Secrets". For some reason, a chapter was omitted from the American edition. The chapter was titled " Korea War". They examined evidences from the International Scientific Commission for the Facts Concerning Bacterial Warfare in Korea and supported the theory of US-Japanese culpability of using Unit 731's germ techniques in Korean War.
The same conclusion was also reached by Professor Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman, author of 1998 book "The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the early cold war and Korea", that "United States had an operational biological weapons system, and that it was employed in the Korea War."
N.Korea alleges that the US used biological weapons against civilians dropping "germ" bombs containing insects, shellfish and feathers infected with anthrax, typhoid and bubonic plague on villages across the country, and invited an international commission to toured the affected areas, interviewed the sick and the dying and carried out a detailed analysis of their infections identified as bubonic plague, cholera and anthrax. The resulting 600-page report concluded that germ warfare had been deployed. Despite its apparent wealth of scientific evidence, it was again dismissed by the US as communist disinformation.
Perhaps the most telling evidence came from a former US air force officer Kenneth Enoch who took part in bombing raids over N.Korea shot down in 1952. While in captivity, he was one of 36 US air force officers who made written and filmed "confessions" that they had taken part in "germ bomb" missions. All repatriated in 1953 and was threatened to be charged for treason. Each then retracted their confessions in front of military cameras: each claimed they had been tortured or indoctrinated.
But when tracked down in Texas, the former US air force officer Kenneth Enoch, now a sprightly 85, denied having been ill-treated or indoctrinated – and appeared to make at least a partial admission that the US did use biological weapons in the Korean War. "Use of germ weapons in war is in breach of the Geneva Convention. I think that's why the Americans are refusing to admit the allegations. But I have no doubt. I'm absolutely sure that this happened." said Professor Mori Masataka.
Takai Matsumura, Japanese historian and economist at Tokyo's Keio University, said Japanese WMD Biological Warfare experiments were conducted in at least 10 other cities in China, including Hailar, Harbin, ChangChun, SunYang, Beijing, Nanjing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, as well as Singapore, Burma, Rangoon, Bangkok, possibly in Manila, East Indies.
WMD Killing Place
|Nanjing||Tama Unit 1644|
|SunYang (Mukden)||Unit 100|
|Hailar||Unit 2646 (Unit 80)|
|Guangzhou (Canton)||Nami Unit 8604|
|Singapore||Oka Unit 9420|
|East Indies||Unit ?|
There were minimum 26 known Japan's WMD killing laboratories in China.
In Philippines, vivisections were carried out at a rate of between once every 3 days and once a fortnight. Limbs were cut off, their blood vessels were sewn up and they underwent abdominal operations. Japanese medic admits vivisection on live victims in Philippines, including women and children. After keeping it to himself for nearly 61 years, he decided to come forward, "I did something cruel ..... I have a responsibility to speak the Truth about the war." said Akira Makino, 84, a resident of Hirakata, Osaka Prefecture. "The souls of those who died would not be soothed if the story remained buried," he said.
In Philippine, Mr. Akira Makino cut open 10 Filipino prisoners, including two teenage girls. He amputated their limbs and cut up and removed their livers, kidneys, wombs and still beating hearts for no better reason than to improve his knowledge of anatomy. The lieutenant cut him open, and pointed out, Here’s the liver, here’s the kidneys, here’s the heart’. The heart was still beating, then he cut the heart open and showed me the inside. That was when he died.
U.S. thundering SILENCE on this issue has allowed the Japanese Government to maintain that there is not enough evidence to prove that the Chinese are telling the truth. When Japanese journalists and academics have stumbled over crucial validating evidence in government archives, the material has been confiscated and re-classified.
However, 2 declassified U.S. government documents, found in Aug. 2005 in the U.S. National Archives by professor Keiichi Tsuneishi at Kanagawa University and an expert on WMD Biological and Chemical Weapons, have clearly confirmed that the U.S. provided money, food, gifts, entertainment and other kinds of rewards to the former Unit 731 members, even 2 years after the War to obtain data on human experiments conducted in China, according to the report.
When neither Japan nor U.S. are prepared to admit to either the crimes or cover-up, a small group of conscientious Japanese human rights activists, doctors, lawyers and former soldiers formed an un-precedented alliance with the Chinese.
Senior Japanese lawyers are acting for the Chinese, among them Tsuchiya Koken, the former president of the Japanese Lawyers Association. Few old Japanese soldiers who worked on the biological warfare programme have also come forward to give evidence. Their stance exposes themselves to abuse at home and accusations from ultra-nationalists that they are traitors.
"The brutality my parents generation committed in the name of war has to be resolved and addressed by my generation" said Keichiro Ichinose, one of the Japanese lawyers.
In 1995, they formed the national Lawyers Group for Chinese War Victims’ Compensation Claims.
In 1997, 108 survivors and family members, including Wu Shi-Gen, filed a lawsuit against the Japanese Government demanding apology and 10 million yen compensation per victim of biological weapons and acts of brutality. The thousands of victims included 2,100 civilians, whose personal details have been verified in China.
In October 1940, Japanese warplanes that had passed over Wu Shi-Gen's village in Quzhou, southern China, but the bombs dropped did not explode. From them poured a mixture of rice and wheat covered with fleas. Few days later, many villagers were struck down by sickness. His 9 year old brother had bubonic plague.
It is an agonising disease glands swell to the size of grapefruit, limbs fill with fluid and whole areas of flesh turn deep purple. Eventually, his brother died screaming. The plague also killed his 2-year-old sister. His father was also bayoneted to death by a Japanese soldier.
Wang Xuan, whose uncle was killed by the plague, after 8 years relentless fight with the Japanese Government has finally succeeded in making her voice heard around the world. Without any government support, she had to pay out of her own pocket for the investigation. Her endeavours have drawn attention from media and experts both at home and abroad.
Her devotion to Exposing Japan's Germ Warfare, is described by some as the Portrait of a Heroine: Shouting the pain from Japan's Germ Attacks. She vowed to shake Japan, China and the U.S. out of the great Pacific amnesia about Biological Warfare. She has taken the lead because: "If we wait for governments to settle this matter, we will die and the Truth will never come out." She was interviewed by PBS and BBC for their documentary films, including: " Unit 731: Nightmare in Manchuria " , " Rotten Foot Village " and the most recent " Avoiding Armageddon".
She used to live in rural village called Yiwu on China's east coast. She shows visitors the Tragedy Pavilion which lists 1,500 plague victims, and describes how Unit 731 dropped plague-infected fleas from aircraft and killed 20 villagers a day at one point in 1942. She lost her uncle and one third of her village to the germs. She then leads visitors through the gray-brick Buddhist temple where the Japanese performed autopsies to gauge the impact of their biological tests. "It's like end of the world and there was a young woman, about 20 years old, was vivisected in this temple, behind me in the temple and the villagers still remember her scream: "I'm not dead yet, don’t cut me open."
"Biological Weapons are NOT History, they are still a reality in China" and (See Pictures), says Wang Xuan. She wants Japan to apologise and make a compensatory payment to the victims. " Sorry is Not Enough", she says.
In city Quzhou, Dr. Qiu Ming Xuan of city's disease prevention centre has been researching the subject for 4 decades. Dr. Qiu said, "The city of Quzhou has a history of 1,800 years. Before 1940 there had never been bubonic plague. But, after 1942, typhoid and anthrax cases also occurred."
Mr. Fang Shinong’s family became outcasts isolated by the village out of fear of the disease. His mother and grandparents were all killed by Japanese bubonic plague. Altogether, his family lost 7 members.
"I want justice. If I die, my son will take over what I’m doing. We want the Japanese government to admit it. Fact is fact, it cannot be hidden. We want justice and compensation." said Fang.
Just East of Quzhou lies the area of Yafang Rotten Leg Village with victims all have suffered from gaping flesh wounds on their legs - which never heal.
For 63 years, Mr. Chen Chong Wen has had to change the bandages daily on his leg infected by “Rotten Leg Disease" known as glanders. His mother was also infected. And not too long after her heel rotted off, and died in terrible pain. With a pained expression on his face, he sobbed loudly, "I don't want anything else. I just want the wound to close. That's the only thing I want."
Wang Xuan has assembled 180 Chinese victims and is now suing Japan, charging that Japan had spread bubonic plague and other diseases in China during WWII. However, in 2002, Tokyo District Court rejected their claim for an apology and compensation.
Eisuke Matsui, Japanese Professor of radiology at Gifu University school of Medicine, said he was compelled to uncover Japan's germ warfare in order to educate the young generation of Japan.
Japanese military training leader of Unit 731, Tomobuchi testifed in NBC Dateline Aug. 15, 1995 "Factory of Death: Unit 731" that he participated in July 1945, in training kamikaze pilots for "akura at Night" (flowers at night), a secret military plan to use five submarines, each carrying few small aircraft to the California coast where they would attack San Diego with "plague bombs" full of infected fleas.
"They were logs to me," said Toshimi Mizobuchi remorselessly, former Unit 731 member and now a real estate manager living outside the Japanese city of Kobe, "Logs were not considered to be human. They were either spies or conspirators already sentenced to death. So now they died a second time. We just executed a death sentence." He said reunion for the several hundred veterans of Unit 731 was held almost every year. He had organized one of the reunion.
When the war was lost, Mizobuchi was given the job of destroying the evidence, including left over prisoners. "Usually we sent air through pipes into the room, but instead, methane gas was pumped in. They all choked to death. I am proud of what we did. If I was younger, I'd consider doing it all again because it was an interesting Unit."
As the war was ending, Japan waited and intended to use plague germs if American had landed on Okinawa. Ironically, Okinawa themselves never knew the plan until Jan. 1994 when the Unit 731 Exhibition opened there. Ito Kageaki recalled, " Okinawa could be thrown away if Japan could gain some military advantage." One local said, "This makes the sacrifices in the Okinawa Battle even more pitiful."
Okinawa Battle had killed approx. 100,000 Japanese soldiers (including local Okinawa conscripts), 12,000 US soldiers, and 100,000 - 150,000 Okinawans civilians. About 1/3 of the population of island were killed. Total death in the Battle of Okinawa is more than the Atomic Bombs of Nagasaki and Hiroshima combined.
In 1981, an article Japan's Biological Weapons: 1930-1945 A Hidden Chapter in History published in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists had drawn much wider public attention to the Japanese inhuman atrocities. In the beginning of the article, it said,
"When this story first reached the Bulletin, our reaction was horrified disbelief. I think all of us hoped that it was not true. Unfortunately, subsequent research shows that it is all too true. In order to verify the facts set forth here we enlisted the help of a number of distinguished scientists and historians......."
The article continues: "Any reader with a sense of justice and decency will be nauseated, not only by these atrocities, but equally so by the reaction of the U.S...... By acquiring "at a fraction of the original cost" the "invaluable" results of the Japanese experiments, have we not put ourselves on the same level as the Japanese experimenters ?......."
In Oct. 1999, in a Letter to Senator Dianne Feinstein for the Bill S.9102 , i.e. the Disclosure Act of Japanese War Crime Documents, History Professor Sheldon H. Harris of California State University emphatically stated in his letter that :
The ""sensitive" documents as defined by archivists and FOIA officers are at the moment being destroyed...... Three examples of this wanton destruction......" by U.S.
"After 60 years, we are still finding positive antibodies of bubonic plague in rats, dogs, cats and other animals. Every year a certain number of healthy people develop typhoid. Japan's Germ Warfare has left behind problems that still threaten our lives." said Qiu Mingxuan, a Chinese doctor, "Environmental pollution and damage to the ecosystem are very serious. The issue is still threatening people in China."
Fears of another outbreak still haunt the Chinese cities to this day.
Daniel Barenblatt, author of new book "A Plague Upon Humanity: The Secret Genocide of Axis Japan's Germ Warfare Operation", said in a recent interview, "There could be over 700,000 or even 1,000,000 lives lost to Japan's Bio-Warfare programme.... The plague bacteria released then still lingers on in some animal populations today. It is still there.... rodents still test positive for antibodies to the bubonic plague .... What the US did in making the deal with top doctors is unconscionable. As far as we know, no one in the US government raised any more objection to it."
Dr. Michael Franzblau, Professor at the University of California said, "I am troubled by the fact that we were willing, we the Americans, were willing to cut a deal in my judgement for very, very small gains. Not a single physician involved in this barbaric action of Unit 731 was ever punished. As a matter of fact, many of them went on to be important physicians in Japan, becoming deans of medical schools, becoming heads of pharmaceutical associations or companies. And finally the head of one of the most prestigious scientific organisations in Japan, an organisation devoted to the study of infectious diseases."
In 2001, in the Tokyo District Court, former Japanese member of Unit 731 told the court that he prepared plague-infected rats to be dropped from airplanes, and scrubbed for autopsies the bodies of prisoners killed in plague experiments. A 2nd former member testified that he air-dropped plague-infected fleas near Hangzhou in 1940 and Nanjing in 1941.
In Aug. 2002, after 27 court hearings since 1998, and with former Unit 731 Japanese soldiers including Yoshio Shinozuka, came forward as witnesses, Japanese court had NO choice and finally was forced to recognize for the FIRST TIME that Japan had conducted WMD Biological Warfare in China, but rejected the demand for apology and compensation.
Yoshio Shinozuka said, "I just want to spread the truth as much as I can. These vicious acts must be exposed. As for the victims’ families .... I want to help them as much as I can. This is my way of showing my apology."
However, the Japanese government still refuses to admit that Japan ever waged WMD Biological Warfare saying -- lack of evidence -- to this day.
In a Satellite Video Link Conference of Japanese War Crimes in 1998, Sheldon Harris, professor emeritus of history at California State University and author of the book, "Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932-45 and the American Cover-up" stressed that :
"The U.S. government is as culpable for inaction as Japan, and the Canadian, British, Dutch and Australian governments knew about it ... While the US "bears a major responsibility" for the coverup of Unit 731, the greater responsibility lies with Japanese."
Pointing to the Nazi Concentration Camp of Auschwitz in Poland and the Hiroshima Peace Memorial in Japan as precedents for UNESCO protection of war ruins, China would seek UNESCO World Heritage protection for the ruins of a Japanese WMD Biological Warfare center of Unit 731 in Harbin, including its laboratories, prisons and crematoria used for experiments on humans to develop WMD Biological Weapons.
In 2005, Evidence of vast plant that Japan used PoWs as human guinea pigs in WMD Chemical and Biological Warfare found in remote grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China. "It covers an area of 40 square miles. It may be the largest and best-preserved gas experiment site in the world ..... Japan conducted WMD Chemical and WMD Germ Warfare in 2/3 of the country, but especially in the north, north-east and south of China," said Mr Jin Chengmin. "It should be qualified for World Heritage status. The ruins serve as a permanent reminder of the atrocities Japanese troops committed in China."
This WMD Chemical Warfare is definitely the worst crime case of systematic chemical massacre against Humanity committed by a country in our Human History. After 60 years, the WMD Chemical Death toll and WMD Injuries including Children are still rising to this day.
Japan refused to acknowledge formally that WMD Chemical Weapon were used, despite the discovery of huge quantity left behind. Use of WMD Chemical Weapons in warfare had been outlawed by the League of Nations in 1925.
In Feb. 2000, a road construction team discovered about 20,000 WMD Chemical Weapon metal canisters lay buried atop the Yellow Beard Mountain, Nanjing, showing for the first time that Japanese forces deployed WMD Chemical Weapon during their invasion of the Chinese capital where Japan committed its infamous Nanjing Massacre in 1937.
The size of the WMD Chemical Weapon, experts say, is enough to put Yellow Beard Mountain near the top of the list of places around the world.
Most startling is the fact that the stockpile in Nanjing represents just a tiny fraction of the WMD Chemical Weapon in China left behind by Japanese army.
Only in November 1995, after US declassified documents pertaining to the weapons, did the Japanese government admit that it had used "lethal gases". according to a report in 2001 by the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London.
During the final weeks of WWII, Japanese lmperial Army truckloaded thousands of WMD Chemical Weapons, including mustard gas and another lethal toxin and dumped them into the Nen River, northeast China. The dumping was part of a secret campaign to erase evidence of Japan's Chemical War against China.
Only recently the Japanese government begun to admit to their work on these weapons of mass destruction by Unit 516, Japan's top-secret WMD Chemical Weapons research facility in Qiqihar, China.
On Aug. 12, 1945 former soldier Masaji Takahashi, now a 77-year-old retired barber, supervised the disposal of WMD chemicals in the Nen River. The order, recalled Takahashi in 1998, "was to throw them from the bridge" into Nen River.
Japanese WMD dumping was much worse and harmful than the U.S. dumped WMD Chemical Weapons off foreign countries' shores.
In 1929, in defiance of the 1925 Geneva Protocol banning WMD Chemical Weapons, Japan seceretly began building a production facility so secret that its location, Okunoshima Island in Takehara, Hiroshima Prefecture, was erased from unclassified Japanese maps. Dubbed "Island of Great Hardships".
The facility had 6,000 workers and produced toxins 1,200 tons annually for Japanese 7 Million WMD Chemical Weapons. Gases were also injected into shells and bomb casings at the Sone Armory in Fukuoka Prefecture; and the navy's WMD Chemical Weapons plant was located in Samukawa, Kanagawa Prefecture.
Japan produced an estimated 7 Million WMD Chemical Bombs, for which 4 Million are currently un-accounted , of which 2 Million could be scattered in China.
Yoshiaki Yoshimi, professor of modern and contemporary Japanese history at Chuo University, based on the incomplete declassified U.S. Army documents at the National Archives in Washington D.C. and a six-volume intelligence report on Japanese chemical warfare, compiled by the General Headquarters of the U.S. Army Forces Pacific in May 1946, he has estimated Japan had produced 1,646,326 units of WMD chemical weapons from 1938 through 1943.
Keiichi Tsuneishi, professor at Kanagawa University, obtained a copy of 10 papers from a former Imperial Army officer. The documents indicate that Japan had produced 5.18 Million poison gas shells (6.100 tons of poison gas) between 1931 and 1945 on Okuno Island in Hiroshima Prefecture.
In 1931, the "Hardships" spread to China. Japan invaded Manchuria, a resource-rich industrial region, and established Unit 516 staffed with 3,000 personnel in Qiqihar to develop and test a modern chemical arsenal. The facility perfected a variety of WMD Chemical Weapons, from deadly smoke "candles" to chemical grenades, mortars and heavy artillery - all manufactured with Okunoshima's poisons. Today, only bunnies frolic on Japan's WMD Chemical Weapons Okunoshima Island.
Japanese troops used these WMD Chemical Weapons almost from the day they started full invasion in China 1937. They launched 375 separate chemical attacks in a four-month campaign to conquer Wuhan.
Benjamin C. Garrett, one of the world's leading experts in Chemical Weapons, has visited China. He has found 6 types of gases the Japanese used in WMD Chemical Weapons against Chinese:
|3.||Bromobenzyl Cyanide and Chloroacetophenon|
|4.||Diphenyl-cyanoarsine and Diphenylchloroarsine|
|6.||Sulfur Mustard and Lewisite|
According to Peter O'Meara Evans author of
BICC Paper13: Destruction of Abandoned Chemical Weapons in China, estimated that Japan during its 14 years brutal WWII invasion in China, had used Chemical Weapons in China more than in any other country and
Japan had used WMD Chemical Weapons in 889 - 2,900 battles in China.
After the war, China began gathering Japanese abandoned WMD chemical weapons (for details, see Abandoned Chemical Weapons in China and also Abandoned and Old Japanese Chemical Weapons) and burying them in remote Dunhua County, in Haerbaling, Jilin province. The 2 large pits, interred a vast stockpile of munitions: 670,000 artillery and mortar shells, smoke canisters, huge drums of chemicals.
It is now Asia's most dangerous dump. The two massive pits contain more than half a million munitions shells. Official warned that an accidental explosion in Dunhua would kill everything, even grass, within a 200 kilometer radius.
According to a Chinese report : Some information on discovered chemical weapons abandoned in China by a foreign state, chemical ordnance in varying amounts has been found in few other provinces (Jilin, Sangdon, Hebei, Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangsu, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia etc).
It has been estimated that 700,000 - 2,000,000 Chemical Bombs most of them loaded with mustard gas and many of them corroded and leaking, are still scattered in China.
Japan has an obligation to remove these weapons within 10 years, under the terms of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which came into effect in April 1997.
OPCW reaffirmed in May 2000 that it held Japan responsible for destroying all these abandoned deadly WMD chemical weapons and Abandoned and Old Japanese Chemical Weapons.
The chemical warheads have continued to injure and kill, harming as many as 2,000 Chinese and damaging the environment. The rotten chemicals leaked from these munitions are continuing to pollute people's health, rivers and underground waters.
China is now home to the world's largest chemical weapons cleanup campaign for 700,000 - 2,000,000 Chemical Bombs.
" This is something that has been done before, but NOT on that scale," said Abu Talib, a chemical weapons expert from Mitretek Systems in Falls Church, Va. in U.S., " Most of the Chemical Weapons around the world, you're talking hundreds and thousands -- NOT such a huge pile."
Whether such a monumental task can be completed by 2007, the deadline imposed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, remains to be seen because Japan has been slow in this chemicals cleanup despite its promise.
Japan's agreement to clean up the arms also came after years of contention and negotiation hampered by Tokyo's long refusal to acknowledge formally that such munitions were used, despite the discovery of so many left behind. The difficulty of the decommissioning project in China is compounded by the leftover weapons' age, condition, mixed content and sheer quantity.
However, some progress has been made. For details, refer to October 2002 report by the Abandoned Chemical Weapons (ACW) Office : Outline of the Project for the Destruction of Abandoned Chemical Weapons (ACW) in China (ACW Destruction Project).
In June 2005, Japan finally decided to spend US$1.9 billion to build a factory in China to dispose its WMD Chemical Weapons abandoned in WWII.
After the war, China has repeatedly demanded Japan to provide all WMD burial sites information of these deadly WMD Chemical Weapons. Unfortunately, Japan has flatly refused to cooperate.
As a result of Japan's WMD refusal, WMD Chemical Weapons continue to threaten everyday people at 40 sites in 15 provinces and autonomous regions.
At least 2,000 Chinese have so far become victims of the discarded 700,000 - 2,000,000 Japanese WMD Chemical Weapons since the war ended.
Japanese freelance director Tomoko Kana was on a sightseeing tour of China in 2003 when she came across a waitress whose life was so miserable that Kana had to find out her story. Kana completed her doucmentary film in 2004 "From the Land of Bitter Tears", based on interviews with about 60 people who had become victims of the Japanese WMD Chemical Weapons after the end of War.
"It was shocking to learn that someone younger than I am is still suffering from damage incurred by Japan's past warfare" said Kana. "The abandoned weapons issue is little known in Japan," she said, "The way Chinese people feel about this issue is very similar to how Japanese feel about North Korea's abductions of Japanese."
"As a Japanese, their story was often too painful to listen to," Kana said. "As a TV director, I interviewed many Japanese victims of the war, but this was the first time I felt like giving up shooting and running away."
In 1995, road workers accidentally set off an abandoned WMD Chemical Weapon, killing 2 people and injuring several others.
The Japanese WMD blew off the arms and legs of Min Liu's father. He suffered serious burns over entire body and died 18 days later. The medical bills for his treatment left a huge debt when she was only a teenager. Min Liu was hoping of becoming a school teacher, but she and her brother had no choice but to leave school and work to pay off her father's medical bills.
The film captured the emotional Liu and 3 other victims from separate incidents has been on, including the scene of Liu giving a tearful hug to her mother while the mother burst into tears, confessing that she pulled the plug on her injured husband because family could not pay the medical bills and thus took him out of the hospital. He died the following day.
One victim accidentally inhaled the poisonous gas from a WMD Chemical Weapon unearthed at a construction site and had to wake up repeatedly at night coughing sputum. He has not slept through a single night for the past 20 years.
Li Cheng, 59, became another victim of Japanse WMD when he touched a mysterious container while working on a dredge ship at the age of 29. Water blisters covered his body and his genital and internal organs were injured. His family had fallen to a life of extreme poverty in the past 30 years. He has attempted suicide twice in an attempt to ease his family's financial burden.
In Aug. 2003, a scrap metal collector in Northeastern China, Qiqihar had mistakenly uncovered 5 drums filled with WMD mustard gas left by the Japanese. harmed more than 40 people. One man had chemical burns over 95% of his body and died later. Others had suffered from vomiting to severe burns.
In an ironical denial, Japan agreed to pay 300 million yen over mustard gas, but NOT as Compensation, insisting ONLY as "Fees for operations to dispose of abandoned WMD Chemical Weapons".
Japan has apologized to China for the incident. Japanese and Chinese working team recently completed sealing up 724 pieces of WMD Chemical Weapons along with five barrels of mustard gas and interview with Japanese official.
China displays WMD Chemical Weapons dug up jointly with Japan.
This is the FIRST official acknowledgement by the Japanese Government that Japan during WWII used WMD Chemical Weapon (mustard gas).
The next step should be the official acknowledgement of the use of the WMD Biological Weapon by the infamous Unit 731.
In July 2004, Two Chinese children playing near a river in Dunhua, Jilin Province, injured by mustard gas leaked from the Japanese WMD Chemical Weapon.
In June 2005, Another 3 Chinese injured by Japanese WMD Chemical Weapons.
In vivid contrast, the Japanese government spends some 3 billion yen (US$ 24.8 million) annually to provide free medical care and other social benefits to about 4,500 Japanese who worked at 3 WMD Chemical Weapons factories during the War.
In July 2005, Evidence of vast plant that Japan used PoWs as human guinea pigs in WMD Chemical and Biological Warfare found in remote grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China. "It covers an area of 40 square miles. It may be the largest and best-preserved gas experiment site in the world ..... Japan conducted WMD Chemical and WMD Germ Warfare in 2/3 of the country, but especially in the north, north-east and south of China," said Mr Jin Chengmin. "It should be qualified for World Heritage status. The ruins serve as a permanent reminder of the atrocities Japanese troops committed in China."
In Ning'an of Heilongjiang China, another 689 shells and bombs were unearthed in July 2006, of which 210 were confirmed to be WMD Chemical Weapons.
Japan has an obligation to remove these weapons within 10 years starting 1997, under the terms of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which came into effect in April 1997. OPCW reaffirmed in May 2000 that it held Japan responsible for destroying all its abandoned deadly WMD chemical weapons.
However, Japan is unlikely to honor the 2007 deadline imposed by OPCW because the joint digs and collections have been going on for 9 years, so far Japan has not destroyed a single Japanese WMD Chemical Weapon that has been unearthed. Japan's initial obliged deadline is now extended. Japan is now obliged to finish clean up by 2012 under an international treaty. However, there is already delay caused by Japanese corrpution in WMD Chemical Weapon cleanup. In 2012, again due to Japan's sluggish effort, the new deadline is now extended to 2022.
As a result, Chinese civilian WMD Death Toll and WMD Injuries including Children continue to rise due to Japanese abandonded WMD deadly weapons to this day .........
Finally, in Sept. 2010, Japan announced the beginning of the disposal of thousands of Japanese WMD Chemical weapons at a ceremony in east China's Nanjing city, but came too late for over 2,000 Chinese citizens who have been injured or killed by leftover Japanese chemical weapons since the end of the war.